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体裁分析视角下的中美政治领导人公众演讲对比研究

作者:yibilw 日期:2021-11-13 分类:外语论文

Chapter I INTRODUCTION

This thesis intends to empirically investigate the macro-structure similaritiesand differences between the public speeches delivered by Chinese political leaders inAmerican universities (CPLiAU) and American political leaders in Chineseuniversities (APLiCU) within the move analysis framework pioneered by John Swales(1990). The focus is upon the comparison on the differences of moves and steps orstrategies employed in two corpora according to the speaker’s communicativepurposes and the discussion of the cultural and ideological reasons behind thesedifferences. The study includes two corpora, four public speeches delivered byCPLiAU and five public speeches delivered by APLiCU, in both a quantitative andqualitative discussion, which is supplemented with the combination of contrastivelinguistics and discourse analysis.In the introduction chapter, the background and significance of the study arediscussed, and then the purpose of the study is presented, which is followed by theoverview of the thesis.

1.1 Statement of the Problem
Since 1970s, the focus in stylistics, text linguistics and discourse analysis hasshifted from a surface description of the lexical and syntactical features of discourseto a deeper and multi-layered explanation of the macro-structures and communicativefunctions of discourse, thus genre analysis emerges and becomes an important branchof discourse analysis. The most classical framework in genre analysis, namely moveanalysis, is established by John Swales, which involves dividing texts into differentunits or segments by shifts in emphasis that Swales calls “moves”. The form of eachmove is then examined so as to build up a pattern of moves representing the genre ofthe text, and each move may be realized by several steps or strategies. Generallyspeaking, different genres are supposed to be represented by different patterns ofmoves.As a special form of communication and one type of political discourse, thepolitical speech, delivered by the political leaders on behalf of one nation, is a type ofspeaking draft in which the political leaders attempt to explain their own attitudes andviews on significant political, social or cultural issues systematically, in order toconvince the audience to take actions as the speaker expects or to change radically orweaken their attitudes or beliefs (Grace, 1995). Political authorities choose to takepublic speeches as a tool to exert their influences or the nation’s influences, and thepolitical speeches in foreign universities by the leadership of one nation may exhibitcertain characteristics that other speeches do not employ, which deserves discussing.
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1.2 Purpose of the Study
Though researchers have long since set out to investigate political discoursefrom different perspectives, little study has been conducted with regard to thecontrastive analysis of the public speeches delivered by political leaders in foreignuniversities. The present study, therefore, aims to analyze the macro-structure ofpolitical public speeches in two corpora based on Swales’ move analysis, throughwhich the author intends to firstly identify the moves and steps or strategies employedin each speech and calculate the word distributions or layout of each move and step orstrategy in two corpora, and then to compare the similarities and differences on themoves and steps or strategies between the speeches delivered by Chinese p oliticalleaders and American political leaders. Afterwards, the cultural and ideologicalreasons behind these differences are discussed, and hopefully, the results of the studycan provide some useful information on speech writing and interculturalcommunication.
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